With MPs debating voting rights for prisoners tomorrow, there has been plenty of media attention focussed on the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). But what does this have to do with the EU?
Despite the often repeated misconception, the ECHR and the EU are separate beasts and the UK could potentially withdraw from the ECHR without having to leave the EU. However, it is also wrong to say that “the EU has nothing to do with the ECHR”, which a surprising number of commentators have over recent weeks.
As the briefing we published yesterday shows, future EU accession to the ECHR, the EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights and the growing amount of EU rights legislation is blurring the lines between the two to the extent that is becoming increasingly difficult to separate them.
EU accession to the ECHR (the negotiations started last year) could allow ECHR rulings to impact on the UK through the back door. The UK would be forced to accept any EU law modified in response to an ECHR ruling.
The case law of the EU's European Court of Justice in Luxembourg and the ECHR in Strasbourg is also becoming increasingly intertwined with the ECJ referring to the European Convention on Human Rights more regularly.
And the EU's so-called “Stockholm Programme”, a five year programme for EU justice and home affairs legislation, will also grant EU citizens new rights that potentially go beyond the European Convention on Human Rights, particularly in criminal and judicial proceedings. Only last year the Lord Chief Justice Lord Judge made this very point, saying that: “The European Court of Justice is beginning to acquire jurisdiction over matters that would normally be regarded as matters not for Luxembourg but for [the ECHR in] Strasbourg.”
Lord Judge added,
“The EU has recently signed up to what is called a ‘roadmap’ of five areas of criminal procedure which must be addressed within the next 5 years to protect and guarantee the rights of EU citizens. I thought that was the job of the Convention.”
So, even if the UK Government does magically reach a compromise with the ECHR this will not be the end of it. The confusing array of rights at the European level is only going to become more so and the types of legal wrangling we are seeing over prisoners voting rights is only likely to occur more often.
A discussion on the need to bring back some control over human rights legislation cannot be limited to the ECHR alone, but must, as a matter of fact, also include the EU itself. A start would be to seek a cast-iron opt-out from the Lisbon Treaty's Charter of Fundamental Rights - which, incidentally, the Conservatives promised ahead of last year's general election.
So far the only thing that is for certain is that the consequences of this legal patchwork of European rights are as clear as mud.